/proc, /sys, and Re: [vox-tech] [OT] Windows Question for Relative
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/proc, /sys, and Re: [vox-tech] [OT] Windows Question for Relative
on Tue, May 10, 2005 at 09:20:24PM -0700, Bob Scofield (email@example.com) wrote:
> On Sunday 08 May 2005 17:47, Karsten M. Self wrote:
> Okay, I'm practicing this stuff on my computer so that I'll be able to
> do it on my sister's computer.
> > - What's the CPU speed? /proc/cpuinfo.
> When I do this with Knoppix I get "permission denied." If I type "su"
> and hit return I go back to the original prompt, and when I retry
> /proc/cpuinfo I get the same error message.
/proc is a virtual filesystem. That is: it doesn't exist on disk, but
instead represents kernel state in a file-based format. This makes it
possible to read (and sometimes modify) data with standard shell tools:
less, more, cat, grep, awk, sed, etc. In the 2.6 kernel system, there's
also /sys which provides yet more information.
Contents of /proc vary by kernel. E.g.: /proc/pci (< 2.4) is now
Contents are also *dynamic*. They change to reflect current system
state. Specific directories may or may not exist, depending on what's
currently configured / enabled / available on your system.
You'll also note that there's a certain amount of replication. I don't
know all the features or history, but here's a stab at it:
Generally you'd 'cat' or 'less' the files to see their content.
Top level of proc. '/' indicates a directory, '@ a symlink:
acpi/ dma ioports modules swaps
asound/ driver/ irq/ mounts@ sys/
buddyinfo execdomains kallsyms mtrr sysvipc/
bus/ fb kcore net/ tty/
cmdline filesystems kmsg partitions uptime
cpuinfo fs/ loadavg scsi/ version
crypto ide/ locks self@ vmstat
devices interrupts meminfo slabinfo
diskstats iomem misc stat
Other interesting files in /proc:
- /proc/cmdline: the system boot parameter. E.g.:
root=/dev/hda2 ro vga=6 noapic hdc=ide-scsi
- /proc/<number>: A directory containing information on the given
process ID. /proc/self is the current process ID. Significant
- cmdline The issued commanline. E.g.: cat /proc/self/cmdline
- cwd Current (a/k/a present) working directory
- environ Shell environment
- exe Executable. Link to same:
- fd File descriptors. Any open files of the process.
- maps Memory / library maps (?)
- mem Process memory
- mounts Available mount points.
- root Process effective root directory
- stat Process statisitcs (reported by 'ps' and similar)
- statm Other stats.
- status Still more stats.
- task See recursion. Not entirely sure....
- /proc/cpuinfo: Information on the system CPU(s)
- /proc/filesystems: Known filesystems (see also /etc/filesystems).
- /proc/mounts: Currently mounted partitions (see also /etc/mtab).
- /proc/meminfo: System memory usage.
- /proc/swaps: Swap partition/file information.
- /proc/uptime: System uptime and load average.
- /proc/version: Kernel version.
- /proc/vmstat: Virtual memory system stats
Some lesser-used files:
- /proc/crypto: Kernel crypto capabilities (this is new)
- /proc/devices: Character/block devices known to the system.
- /proc/dma: ??
Subdirectories of /proc can have some interesting components:
- acpi: Power control.
- bus: Devices on the hardware busses: input, pccard, pci, pnp, usb
- driver: Driver-speific data
- fs: Filesystem stuff ?
- ide: IDE (disk) subsystem
- irq: Interrupts data.
- net: Networking. Several tuning and firewall capabilities,
specifically NAT or IP forwarding, are handled here.
- scsi: SCSI subsystem state.
- sys: General system information. There's a lot of gold in here.
- sysvipc: System V inter-process communications.
- tty: Termina management.
Looking at /proc/sys:
- abi: Programming interfaces
- debug: Debugging (we presume)
- dev: Devices, e.g.: cdrom, parport, rtc, scsi
- fs: Filesystem _state_.
- kernel: Extensive kernel state
- net: Network state. More goodness here.
- proc: ??
- vm: Virtual Memory subsystem information.
I've written a script which gleans some of the more useful information
out of /proc (and some other places) called "system-info", which can be
useful for documenting what you've got and how it's configured:
...you might want to run this and print output.
As for /sys, we'll just take a quick peek:
block/ bus/ class/ devices/ firmware/ module/ power/
Tree (max depth = 2)
| hda loop3 loop7 ram3 ram7 ram11 ram15
| loop0 loop4 ram0 ram4 ram8 ram12 sr0
| loop1 loop5 ram1 ram5 ram9 ram13
| loop2 loop6 ram2 ram6 ram10 ram14
| i2c ci np usb-serial
| de cmcia csi
| eee1394 platform sb
| graphics mem printer tty
| i2c-adapter misc scsi_device usb
| ieee1394 net scsi_generic usb_host
| ieee1394_host pci_bus scsi_host vc
| ieee1394_node pcmcia_socket scsi_tape
| input ppp sound
| pci0000:00 platform
| pnp0 pnp1 system
| acpi edd
| 8139cp ohci1394
| 8139too ohci_hcd
| ac97_codec parport
| af_packet parport_pc
| agpgart pci_hotplug
| ata_piix pciehp
| autofs4 pcmcia_core
| capability pcspkr
| cdrom ppp_async
| cfbcopyarea ppp_generic
| cfbfillrect reiserfs
| cfbimgblt rtc
| commoncap scsi_mod
| crc32 sd_mod
| dm_mod serial_cs
| ds sg
| e1000 shpchp
| edd sir_dev
| ehci_hcd sis5513
| eth1394 sis_agp
| evdev slhc
| ext2 smbfs
| ext3 snd
| fat snd_ac97_codec
| font snd_intel8x0
| gameport snd_mixer_oss
| i2c_core snd_mpu401_uart
| i2c_isa snd_page_alloc
| i2c_sensor snd_pcm
| i810_audio snd_pcm_oss
| ide_cd snd_rawmidi
| ide_core snd_seq
| ide_disk snd_seq_device
| ide_generic snd_seq_midi_event
| ide_scsi snd_seq_oss
| ieee1394 snd_timer
| ip_tables soundcore
| iptable_filter sr_mod
| ipv6 st
| ircomm tekram_sir
| ircomm_tty tsdev
| irda tun
| irtty_sir uhci_hcd
| isofs unix
| jbd usb_storage
| joydev usbcore
| libata usbhid
| loop usbkbd
| lp usbserial
| mbcache vesafb
| mii vfat
| minix visor
| mousedev w83781d
> > - How much memory? 'free'
> > - What's hard drive performance?
> > hdparm /dev/hda # show Knoppix's autoconfigured settings.
> > hdparm -tT /dev/hda # test actual performance.
> > The critical value is the second number, buffered disk reads. Good
> > values are in the 10 - 50+ MiB/s range. Anything < 1 MiB/s indicates
> > a pathalogically slow drive. I got *massive* system performance
> > boosts by swapping out a disk getting ~150 KiB/s (yes, kilobytes) for
> > one hitting 60-80 MiB/s.
> I assume that your "MiB/s" is the same as MB/sec, right? I'm getting 50.99
> MB/sec on my computer.
That's a nice throughput. If you can find out that legacy MS Windows is
doing similarly (not sure what profiling tools exist) you're OK there.
> PS. It seems like Knoppix is really important for Windows machines.
Karsten M. Self <firstname.lastname@example.org> http://kmself.home.netcom.com/
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